We all have to get our food some way, and back in medieval times they used farmers, and a lot of them. They owned a little bit of land and on that they grew crops, both Japan and Europe had them and seig as farmers arent complex there cant be any differences. Can there? Read to find out!
Farming took up most peoples lives during the medieval times, especially throughout Europe. It was a vital thing for people to live because without food people would die. Even in small villages there were lots of farmers! It was far from easy though. The tools they used were made of stone and wood and was very hard work. Some of the tools they used were metal tipped or stone tipped ploughs and harrows. They also used manure as a fertiliser. Nowadays we have tractors and combines, much more efficient than the tools they had in the medieval times. Also each month they had to get a specific amount of crops harvested so they could follow their "farming year". It was very important. Farms were also alot smaller back then and unfortunatelly most people who worked them did not even own it so most were basically tenants. Also most families could not even afford a farming animal, an ox being the best. An ox was also knows as a "beast of burden". It did work that people would find almost impossible. When in a group they could plow and it was vital. Villages would often invest in one or two and share them around between farmers. Farmers always helped eachother to make sure they got everything done. Horses were also used here. And even after all the hard work put in the chance the crops would actually grow was doen to hard work but also luck. It was hard for them because during summer they needed sun, but too much could sap all the moisture out of the ground and make it to hard to grow. Although in other seasons one period of rain could ruin everything but the peasants still had to find money for taxes. But atleast during summer there was a chance the sun would be fine so that is why it was the 'growing season'. And even though during the winter they couldnt do much farming there were still many tasks. Some places even had someone called a reeve who made sure the peasants worked.
In Japan the farmers were poor, they were peasants, but unlike Medieval Europe few actually had money, they would spend this to buy their own farm instead of renting it. This and the fact the food was vital is why they were below samurai on the Feudal System and ahead of the merchants. Unfortunately even though they made so much food, mostly rice, they could not eat it. This meant some poor farmers had to eat barnyard grass or millet. Farmers with more money could afford real food though, maybe even someone elses rice! The main reason they couldn't eat rice though was that taxes were high and rice was expensive, pretty unfair as they grew it! They also had to wear simple clothes made of cotton or even hemp. I wonder if they smoked their old clothes! These farmers did not just make rice though, some grew potatoes, radishes, cucumbers, beans, chesnuts, persimmons, nuts, tofu, yams, sour plums, apricots, peaches, apples and oranges. Wow thats alot! They also collected seeweed, abalone, carp, bonito, trout, tuna, octopus, jallyfish, clams, and whale form the sea as it was near by. Some even hunted, they hunted geese, quail, deer and boar. Thats alot! Still most just made rice. When they herbested the rice it was the most exiting time of the season.
Now we are up to similarities, and there are a few. One of the more obvious ones is that thwy farm for crops, which then gets given to people of higher rank than them, pretty obvious one. Another is that they had no machinery or contraptions to farm, yes it was a long time ago but they had contraptions and could make one to help farming, the peasants were to poor though so they wouldn't be able to afford one anyway. Another is that almost all of them were poor and most could not aford to have their own land and many borrowed it! They also had to pay taxes even though they were very poor. Another is that people half respected them, or atleast they had to because the food they grew was vital for everyones survival, and without it they wouldn't have survived, some of us may not even be here! Lastly is that when the crops were harvested it was a very big occasion and was celebrated.
Lastle here are the differences. There are alot here! One of the biggest ones is about the money these people had. In Europe it was very rare to see a farmer who had money but in Japan many farmers could buy their own land and live decent lives. Another is that the Japanese farmers could not eat any of their produce, pretty unfair. In Europe farmers could have some of their own produce but in Japan they had to get food by other means. Another may be wrong but from the information I have nothing to say it isnt true. That is the tools we used. From the picture we have and the info we know that the Europeans had tools to harvest food with, they even had animals! But from what we know about Japan they used no animals or tools, we can see this in the picture too. Another is how many varieties of things the farmers farmed. We dont quite know what the Europeans harvested but we know that the Japanese grew and hunted over 40 different things! Most still just grew rice though. In europe also some villages had reeves which made sure peasants worked, in Japan there is no proof of anything like this happening. Also in Europe they had a "farming year" in Japan, from what we know, they did not. Another difference is what most farmers ate. In Europe because the farmers could have some of their own produce they ate that but in Japan because they couldnt most had to eat things like grass! Lastly we talk about hunting. It says some Japanese farmers hunted for animals but the Europeans did not.